ETYMOLOGY OP LOCAL NAMES. 343 only the letter r, which we see appearing as a final in such words as K&mar, Sahar, Udhar, and Surir. Of these, Kamar (for Kam-ra) is probably an offshoot from the neighbouring town of Ham-ban in Bharatpnr territory a famous place of Yalsh- nava pilgrimage; while Sahar and Udhar must have been named after their respective founders, who in the one case is known to have been called Udho^ or Udhan, and in the other was probably some Sabha. In Sarir} which presents peculiar difficulties, we fortunately are not left to conjecture. For a local tradition attests that the town was once called Sngriv-ka Eiera. The resemb- lance between the two names is slight that the people on the spot and the tmphilological mind generally would not recognize any connection between them ; but according to rules already quoted Sugriv-ra would pass naturally Into Surir, and the fact that it has done so is a strong confirmation of the truth of the rules. Another particle that is commonly used for investing substantives with a possessive force is wdla^ or ward. Of this,, as a component in a village name7 we have two illustrations in the district, riz.j Pipalwara and Bhadanwara.* No satis- factory attempt has hitherto been made to explain the derivation and primary meaning either of this affix wdlay or of the somewhat less common lidrd, which is used in a precisely similar way. I take the latter to represent the Sanskrit dJidra (from the root dhn) in the sense of l holding' or * having/ as in the compounds chJiattr&dhdra, l having an umbrella,' danda-dMr^ c hav- ing a stick.* The elision of the d is quite according to rule? as in baJiira^4 deaf,* for badJiwa. Wtildj agaiE3 is I consider beyond any doubt the Sanskrit pdla, with Hie same signification of £ keeping or * having.' The substitution of v for p is prescribed by YararacM in Sutra II., 15, who gives as an example the Prakrit *doo for the Sanskrit sopa, * a curse.5 Thus we have from go-pala^€ a cow-keeper/ gmcdla^ and finally gwal®; from chaupdl the alternative form chauwdrdj and from teto-pala, f the governor of a fort,' the familiar kotwdL For the formation of adjectives that denote possession, the affix most " frequently employed, botli in Sanskrit and modern Hindustani,, is L Thus from dJianj * wealth,' comes rfAant, wealthy and from mdla, * a floral wreath* comes mdlij f a florist.* Dr. Hunter, with much perverted ingenuity, has gone out of his way to suggest that the latter are an aboriginal and non-Aryan race and " take their name from the tribal term for man, maley from, which many * It ia carious to find in the English of the 9th century a word "wira* used precisely in the same way. Thus the Mefsewara, or marsh folk, were the dwellers in the reclaimed flftta of Komney marsh: while the Cantwaia inhabited the Cunt, or *>pen aplaad which still gives it* mmme to the county of Kent.